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  2. 您現在所在位置:首頁 > 專欄 > 歲月軼事
    潭柘與幽州
    牛頌 2017-01-04 02:15

      有位詩人曾說過:人的一生有兩樣東西不會忘記,那就是母親的面孔和城市的面孔。北京這座城市的記憶,太過古老了。明代《春明夢余錄》載:“潭柘寺,晉曰嘉福寺,唐曰龍泉寺?!毖嗳酥V語:“先有潭柘,后有幽州”,是“先有潭柘寺,后有北京城”的來歷。隋唐時期北京稱“幽州”,佛寺遍布城郊。

      北京奧運會舉辦后,應日本佛學家前田惠學教授邀請,我率雍和宮考察團赴日本進行佛教文化交流。期間造訪京都、橫濱、名古屋、大阪以及東京等城市的佛教寺院,深感日本在戰后恢復和城市現代化建設中對歷史建筑的重視和保護。以京都為例,全市有3000座宮寺古建筑,大大小小都保護完好,或莊嚴恢宏,或精致玲瓏,被列為世界文化遺產的建筑比比皆是,密密麻麻地標注在城市交通圖上。在名古屋,前田惠學教授在豐田汽車董事長的“家廟”接待我們參觀寺廟中專設的北京雍和宮法物陳列室。談到城市建設中對古代寺廟建筑的保護,這位愛知學院的大學師特別提到了梁思成先生,對梁先生當年給美國空軍的建議代表日本民族感恩戴德。

      梁思成在新中國成立后擔任北京市規劃委員會副主任,民國時期他是耶魯大學教授,紐約建設聯合國總部大廈時他則是大廈設計咨詢委員會的專家代表。二戰結束前,美空軍策劃轟炸日本前,梁思成力勸美軍將領保護文物古跡,特別對京都、奈良、大坂等城市的古跡標出重要方位,其中包括了所有古代寺廟建筑。梁思成先生對北京古城保護的方案中,對寺廟也十分珍惜,甚至細到考慮長安街上的一座雙塔寺應當如何保護利用,并建議保留修建成一座街心花園,為現代化大城市安放一處可以靜思的心舍。

      建筑是歷史的記憶、時代的坐標,凝固的文化。宗教建筑遺產與其它歷史建筑建筑不同的是:皇宮王府留下來了,但里面的帝王將相不復存在;而千百年宗教信仰的傳承,卻使寺廟成為同一類信仰者世世代代重復著同樣宗教活動的場所,包容著人類不變的情感生活。信仰的千年堅守、高僧大德的世代傳承,使宗教建筑成為一種活態的歷史遺產。正所謂“歲歲年年花相似,年年歲歲人不同”。影像的紀錄是現代的事,數字影像記錄是當代的事,現在活態歷史遺產的存在已離不開影像,而宗教歷史遺產的活態性則表現在當下的僧人和信仰者身上。這種活態性,是其它遺產都比不了的。

      元大都繁華時期,北京城的道教總有“五十二宮七十觀”。至明成化年間,京城內外官方所建寺廟有639座,清乾隆年間達1300多座,包括一些民間信仰場所。它們或在輝煌壯麗的皇城宮殿建筑群內靜靜佇立,或散落于胡同小街?!耙粋€胡同三個廟”成為城市細胞的構成元素。古寺廟建筑不但承載著歷代帝王、貴族的宗教生活,也映襯著市井百姓的民俗民風,在北京古都風貌與城市肌理、文化色彩與精神魅力的構成中,有著獨特的價值。故宮內現還有一些廟觀正在修復中,至今保存完好的廟堂計30多處,包括藏族風格的喇嘛廟,都與皇家建筑融為一體,因多民族多宗教的融合盡顯魅力。

      世界上每座歷史文化名城都是在特定的自然地理條件和人文歷史發展中逐漸形成,并最終凝聚出城市文化和歷史美感。作為標志性的古建筑和文物古跡,宗教建筑則以個體形式真實具體地印證了一個城市的歷史變遷和文化交融。老北京有首歌謠云:“九個城門十座廟,只有一廟無神道”,說的是北京內城的9座城門,每座都是由城樓、箭樓、甕城及關帝廟組成完整的建筑模式。今天我們看到的城門建筑其實已經不完整了。如北京的天寧寺初建于北魏,寺中磚塔是遼代在舊塔址上建造的,明清時只整修過一些細部。城址幾經變遷,今天的天寧寺已由城市中的地標位置,變為地處城垣之外的一篇 “凝固的日記”,讓人從中可以閱讀到北京的歷史。而作為古都中的歷史地段,它們成群、成組、成片、成區地反映了古都城市生活場景,又構成北京城歷史生活一個個“凝固的片斷”。又如什剎海邊,歷史上曾建有寺廟168座(“什剎?!焙小八聫R群”的意思),現被列為文物保護單位的有22座,部分建筑尚存的有20座,今天有些被當作酒吧、餐飲在經營著。

      對走過的路“溫故知新”,為的是接受歷史教訓,不再犯同樣的錯誤。德國哲學家黑格爾從哲學上思考,認為“人類最應該接受的教訓,就是人類從來不接受教訓”。這個判斷有些悲觀但卻十分深刻。僅從北京的城市文化建設看,目前已經規劃了長城文化、西山文化、大運河文化等歷史文化帶,并在修復許多具有文化價值的宗教歷史建筑。這意味著人們開始對已有失誤進行彌補,在逐漸走出離文化越來越遠的城市發展誤區。


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